This article appears in India Defence Consultants.
WHAT'S HOT? ANALYSIS OF RECENT HAPPENINGS
Maharishi's Supreme Military Science -
A Revolutionary Change in the Character of Military Intervention
David R. Leffler, Ph.D.
Wing Commander Ravi Badhwar (Ret.)
Kenneth G. Walton, Ph.D.
About the Authors:
On the left, an external magnetic field penetrates an ordinary conductor whose electrons behave in a chaotic or disorderly way.
On the right, the external magnetic field is excluded from the interior of a super-conductor whose electrons function in a coherent collective manner-invincibility.
The Maharishi Effect creates invincible "national armor" that cannot be penetrated by the collective negativity of other countries.
Physics Describes the Unified Field
Historically, the most effective means to counter a potential enemy's military technology is to make that technology obsolete. The state-of-the-art weaponry of any age invariably harnesses more powerful and profound laws of nature. Maharishi Effect technology appears to operate from what modern physicists describe as the ultimate source of power--the unified field of all the laws of nature. Theoretical physics during the past decade has evolved to a progressively more unified understanding of the basic laws of nature, culminating in the recent discovery of completely unified field theories. These theories locate a single field of intelligence at the basis of all matter and force fields in the universe. In this field, all the known fundamental forces of nature: the weak force, the strong force, the electromagnetic force, and gravitation are unified.[lxxv],[lxxvi]
Could the Unified Field be Harnessed as a Military Technology?
Could this field of intelligence be tapped? Most modern scientists are puzzled by the concept of consciousness and the mind's relationship to physics. In ancient cultures from time immemorial there was no puzzle: a coherent human mind contacts deeper levels of creation. Today, world-renowned physicists and others theorize that consciousness sprouts from the quantum mechanical level the most abstract level, the unified field.[lxxvii] [lxxviii] [lxxix] If this is correct, then the mind inherently operates at these subtle and powerful levels of nature. The results of tests of the Maharishi Effect discussed below are too far-reaching to be explained by field effects associated with any of the four basic forces of nature. For this reason, scientists involved in these studies are convinced the Maharishi Effect must operate on the most profound and powerful level--the unified field of all the laws of nature.[lxxx] [lxxxi] [lxxxii]
Selected Maharishi Effect research
Over 50 studies suggest that by taking full advantage of the Maharishi Effect militaries could quickly create more peaceful collective consciousness in society and reducing warfare, crime, violence, and other forms of negative social behavior (For a review see[lxxxiii]). In the following paragraphs, several of these studies are reviewed.
A study that was conducted in the town of Baskinta, Lebanon found that when 1% of the people were taught the Transcendental Meditation technique the number of war casualties and crises decreased significantly as compared to four towns near Baskinta with comparable demographics.[lxxxiv] There had been an average of two incoming artillery shells per day in Baskinta during the previous two years. After becoming a 1% city, the shelling stopped for the following two years even though the rate continued to climb in the five control cities with comparable demographics. Differences between Baskinta and the control villages reached a significance of p<.005. The results of this study were predicted in advance, strongly suggesting a causal influence for the Maharishi Effect in reducing conflict.
In other studies, Davies[lxxxv] and later Davies & Alexander[lxxxvi] looked at how the war in Lebanon was affected by seven large assemblies that had reached the theoretically sufficient number of TM-Sidhi practitioners. The results of applying Maharishi Effect technology were striking (i.e., a 71% reduction in war deaths, a 68% reduction in war injuries, and a 48% reduction in the overall level of conflict) and cooperation among antagonists increased 66% [p<.00001 for each variable]. These data were obtained by a trained Lebanese rater, blind to the purpose of the experiment, who reviewed reports from eight international news sources and the regional Foreign Broadcast Information Service. These figures were found to be uninfluenced by controlling for holidays, announced events, seasonality, or other trends using a dependent time series analysis. Also, combined analysis of the data from these seven assemblies would normally be expected to show a statistical effect of diminishing the demonstrated results. Combining the results of all seven assemblies gave an extraordinary probability outcome (p<10 -19), consistent with the assumption that substantive and replicable variations were being assessed. Therefore, this study presents strong evidence that Maharishi Effect technology is a reliable means to reduce enmity, instability and violence on a national scale.
Quality of life in Israel, including intensity of the conflict in Lebanon,
improves in direct proportion to the number of participants
in the coherence-creating group.[lxxxvii]
In this study, a Maharishi Effect group was established in Israel in the summer 1983. The number of participants varied daily from a low of 65 to a high of 241. Time series analysis and transfer function analyses were simultaneously used. The results were compared on six variables, and three composite quality of life indicators. Specific predictions of study outcomes were made in advance and lodged with an independent review board of experts.[lxxxviii] The board also approved the statistical methods in advance of the study. Results indicated that War intensity dropped 45% (p<.0045), War deaths dropped 76% (p<.02) from a mean of 40 deaths per day to 9.7 per day. Crime in Israel dropped 12% (p<.0016) from a mean of 608 per day to 535 per day. Crime in Jerusalem dropped 8.8% (p<.023) from a mean of 46.7 per day to 42.6 per day. Fires dropped 30% (p<.045) from a mean of 8 per day to 5.6 per day. Auto accident fatalities fell 34% (p<.024) from a mean of 3.9 per day to 2.5 per day. Taken together, quality of life improved by 1.3 standard deviation units in Israel (p<.0001), by .75 in Lebanon (p<.02) and by .94 in Jerusalem (p<.003).
Evidence indicates that the technology of the Maharishi Effect generates cooperation and friendliness rather than suspicion and hatred. A study by Orme-Johnson, Dillbeck, Bousquet & Alexander[lxxxix] revealed that when TM-Sidhi groups went to 5 world trouble spots--Lebanon, Iran, Rhodesia (Zimbabwe), Kampuchea, and Nicaragua--where they did nothing other than to practiced the TM-Sidhi programme together in groups for 10 weeks, violence and disorder rapidly decreased in each country. During the stay there was significant local progress towards peace. After their departure, situations worsened. For the entire year (1978) 14,567 events were recorded in the Conflict and Peace Data Bank (COPDAB), the world's largest such resource. Contingency table analysis of COPDAB data compared to a 10-week control period, a 1-year baseline, and a 10-year baseline showed significant improvement in each case. Time series analysis showed the project had a strong and statistically significant effect world-wide. Compared to a ten-week baseline, world-wide trends improved. Hostile acts between countries as well as between factions within the trouble spots decreased 16.7% (p<.002). Cooperative events, as a proportion, rose nationally by 13.2% (p<.007). Also, the type of events reported shifted significantly, from military (i.e., wars, guerrilla raids, troop deployment, security pacts, defence treaties, etc.), to non-military issues (i.e., culture, economy, political order, law, environment, etc.), with an increase of 21.8 percentage points in non-military issues. This finding could be interpreted as a shift in the society's collective consciousness from an emphasis on destruction to an emphasis on more societal cooperation.
Other evidence suggests it may not be necessary to send military coherence creating groups to the "hot spots" around the world, if the TM-Sidhi groups are sufficiently large. Orme-Johnson, Dillbeck, Alexander, Chandler & Cranson,[xc] found that three large assemblies (approaching 7,000, roughly the square root of 1% of world's population) of practitioners of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programme decreased international conflicts (p<.025, p<.005 and p<.01 for each of the three assemblies) and international terrorism (p<.025) on three occasions during 1983-85. Time-series analysis using objective data on terrorism obtained from the Rand Corporation ruled out the possibility of spurious correlations due to trends and cycles in the data. Other known variables that might affect the process were also controlled for.
Coherence of Brain Function a Probable Mechanism?
The complete understanding of how meditating individuals or groups can create such "effects at a distance" requires more study. However, preliminary research has utilized neurophysiological and biochemical approaches to gain some insights into possible mechanisms involved. For example, increased brain wave (EEG) coherence during meditation has been correlated with higher IQ and moral reasoning. These changes in the levels of coherence occur when different parts of the brain work together in synchrony (for a review see[xci]). When large groups collectively practice the more advanced TM-Sidhi programme, increases in EEG coherence are produced in subjects far removed from the group. One experiment showed an increase in "intersubject" EEG coherence (the coherence of brain waves between different individuals) one thousand miles from the group.[xcii] A biochemical study has shown that on days when large numbers of people practiced these techniques, both practitioners and non-practitioners in the local area exhibited higher availability of serotonin, a neurochemical associated with well-being or happiness.[xciii] Low serotonin is known to play a role in human aggression and hostility.
Coherent Physical Systems
Maharishi also predicted the coherence-creating effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programme on social systems before scientific studies supported his prediction. He based his prediction not only on ancient knowledge, as mentioned earlier, but also on discussions with physicists about coherent physical systems such as the laser.
Laser light is more powerful than conventional light because it is more orderly and coherent. Apollo astronauts on the moon could see laser light shone from the earth at levels as low as 15 watts.[xciv] Fifteen watts is about the energy output of a night-light! However, these astronauts could not see the millions of watts of conventional light illuminating New York City at night. What made the difference?
The intensity of normal light is emitted in direct proportion to the number of atoms involved. Excited atoms emit photons as they return to the ground state. Light is emitted in different directions at various frequencies creating what physicists call "incoherent light," all mixed up. In a laser, however, a type of collective behavior emerges that is distinguished by its orderliness. The atoms are perfectly correlated with each other and no longer act independently. They operate together as one coherent and complete system. The result is that the intensity of the light emitted by a number of atoms, N, is increased tremendously, actually in proportion to N squared. If 100 atoms are perfectly in phase with one another in the laser, they will radiate with an intensity of 1002, or 10,000 times that of a single atom.
Illustration of Conventional Light and Laser Light
A similar coherence-creating effect is thought to be created during group practice of the TM-Sidhi programme. The influence of this coherence radiates from the group to society. A simple analogy can be used to explain it. Imagine a large tank of water that is filled with floating corks all at rest. Grasping and bobbing just one of the corks up and down in the water creates waves. These waves spread and in turn cause the other corks to start bobbing.
The Maharishi Effect, the First Truly Defensive Defence System
The Maharishi Effect appears to strike at the most fundamental strategic point--the level where enemies arise--stress in collective consciousness. If enemies are not born there are no battles. Warfare and violence become obsolete. For this reason, Maharishi's consciousness-based strategy may be the first truly defensive system for maintaining peace. At least militarily speaking, if a nation has no enemies it is invincible. It remains "friends" with everyone, ensuring security. History shows national invincibility is not possible through weapons or material defences alone because newer and better weapons can always be developed. Invincibility is gained, however, if all other nations are our allies. If a Maharishi Effect shield really works, as studies so far suggest it does, "Prevention Wings" of experts in this technology deployed in every nation could create a permanent shield of friendliness that would surround and protect the nation. For these simple but profound reasons, the strategic advantage that might be gained by implementing such a consciousness-based technology as an addition to existing defence systems is much greater than it might at first appear. As with any other technological breakthrough, concepts change only as the practical benefits become clearly manifest.
Anticipating the Change in the Character of War
The concept of using a military's collective consciousness to radiate coherence and eliminate stress is hardly a widely accepted military strategy in today's arena of military might. Defensive radar systems routinely radiate electromagnetic waves over a hundred miles, but the idea that human minds might radiate a peaceful influence which might be used to create a defence system is novel. Most people today view the human mind or consciousness as being trapped inside the head. It will take a leap of understanding for most leaders to adopt the strategy of improving collective consciousness as an effective way of preventing conflict before it has arisen.
Maharishi's Supreme Military Science Technology maybe the Most Cost-Effective, Innovative, and Humane Defence System Available.
In a time of increased responsibility, increased costs of military hardware and declining military budgets in most countries, the technology discussed here is unique in its promise for meeting multiple laudable goals. First, a Prevention Wing is cost-effective. Considering the hundreds of billions of dollars spent worldwide on defence the cost of implementing this technology is minor. Once convinced, militaries adopt the latest technologies to accomplish their missions. Research suggests that this human resource technology is the most advanced and practical means to defend a nation. It is simple to implement and produces immediate results. The research suggests that any nation's military can cheaply and quickly create global defence and a lasting peace. Furthermore, the technology is completely humane--it promotes progress and positive evolutionary trends both within the nation and in surrounding nations.
Avert the Danger Before it Comes
The post-USSR world has proven to be a more dangerous place than one might have imagined. There are no well-defined opponents. Wars will be less predictable.[xcv] Nuclear weapons from the former Soviet arsenal are allegedly available on the world black market.[xcvi] Biological weapons popularly called "poor man's nukes" are even easier to acquire.[xcvii] Current military strategies are not well designed for the possibility of even one of these winding up in the hands of rogue elements such as terrorists. New defence technologies must be evaluated and implemented to deal with such threats. Further field-testing the potential of a military prevention wing to avert dangers that have not yet come could be accomplished quickly, inexpensively, and conclusively. Such tests of coherence-creating effects of the TM and TM-Sidhi programme, and its ability to reduce collective societal stress, could be replicated in countries large and small throughout the world. History indicates the effect of introducing such "coherent systems" could prevent hostilities.
Warriors since Sun Tzu have championed the idea that the supreme art of war is to win without fighting. If such prevention wings of the military continue to be successful, as they appear to have been in Mozambique, they could drastically change the character of military intervention even beyond the dreams of Douhet and Sun Tzu. In the tradition of military pioneers, today's military leaders might consider creating their own coherence-creating groups.
President Chissano of Mozambique has expressed his willingness to endorse his experiences to any government or head of state who inquires. He relates his and his countrymen's experiences as follows, "First I started the practice of Transcendental Meditation myself, then introduced the practice to my close family, my cabinet of ministers, my government officers, and my military. The result has been political peace and balance in Nature in my country. People ask me if this is a religion. I have explained to them that I may keep my religion but I should take advantage of this science and make maximum use of it....We will not stop praying in our churches, we will not stop praying in our mosques, we will not stop praying in our synagogues, but we will make an appeal to the support of Nature through the application of this technology (of consciousness)."[xcviii]
The authors very much appreciate the assistance of Lee Leffler in the proofing of this paper and Dr. Kurt Kleinschnitz, Tom Blair and Denise Rusch in the preparation of the graphs. We are indebted to Navy SEAL Ensign Daniel K. Burke, U.S. Naval Reserve, Major Barry Cave, USA (Ret.), Lt. Col. Carl Churchill, USA (Ret.), Ron Khare, Lt. Col. Richard Neate, USAF (Ret.), Lt. Col. David Niles, USA (Ret.), Commander Fred Therrien, USN (Ret.), Dr. Robert Herron, Dr. Michael Dillbeck and Dr. Susan Vegors for contributing their expert knowledge.
® Transcendental Meditation, TM, and TM-Sidhi are registered in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office as service marks of the Maharishi Foundation Ltd. and are used under license.
[i] Invincibility for Every Nation and Lasting World Peace, Maharishi University of Management, The Netherlands, 1999, (available from Maharishi Global Administration through Natural Law, Station 24, 6063 NP Vlodrop, The Netherlands, Email: ).
[ii] Ibid., p. 19.
[iii] Ibid., p. 19.
[iv] Messing, Jr., F. A., "National Defense Council Foundation World Conflict List," (Alexandria, Virginia: National Defense Council Foundation, 31 Dec 95), pp. 1-6.
[v] Douhet, G. The Command of the Air, translated by Dino Ferrari. U.S. Government Printing Office, USAF Office of History, Washington, D.C., 1983, p. 30.
[vi] Adelsberger, B. Why stress is a threat--Peacekeeping missions add a new dimension. Air Force Times, May 27, 1996, p. 10.
[vii] Auster, B.B. Stretched thin--America's shrinking military: overworked and over there. U.S. News World Report, July 25, 1994, pp. 22-23.
[viii] Hudson, N. & Matthews, W. Deployed and feeling strain stress taking a toll on readiness, says Pentagon study. Navy Times, August 15, 1994, p. 3.
[ix] Thompson, M. The living room war. Time, May 23, 1994, pp. 48-51.
[x] Hudson, N. & Matthews, Ibid.
[xi] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi, Maharishi's Absolute Theory of Defence (Maharishi Vedic University, India: Age of Enlightenment Publications, 1996).
[xii] Haratani, T. & Henmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) On Mental Health of Industrial Workers, Japanese Journal of Industrial Health, 1990, 32(7), 177.
[xiii] Haratani, T. & Henmi, T. Effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) On Mental Health of Industrial Workers, Japanese Journal of Public Health, 1990, 37(10), 729.
[xiv] Orme-Johnson, D.W. Medical Care Utilization and the Transcendental Meditation Program, Psychosomatic Medicine, 1987, 49(1), 493-507.
[xv] Ottoson, J.O. Transcendental meditation, Socialstyrelsen, 1977, D: nr SN 3-9-1194/73 (National Health Board of Sweden).
[xvi] Suurküla, J. The Transcendental Meditation Technique and the Prevention of Psychiatric Illness. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 2, edited by R.A. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn, & M. Weinless, Maharishi International University Press, Vlodrop, The Netherlands: 1977, pp. 896-897.
[xvii] Herron, R.E., Hillis, S.L., Mandarino, J.V., Orme-Johnson. D.W., & Walton, K.G. The Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Government Payments to Physicians in Quebec, American Journal of Health Promotion, 1996, 10(3), 208-216.
[xviii] Herron, R.E. & Hillis, S.L. The Impact of Transcendental Meditation on Government Payments to Physicians in Quebec: An Update, American Journal of Health Promotion, 2000, 14(5), 284-291.
[xix] Military Police Center for Education and Training, Salvador, State of Bahia, Brazil, 3 Feb. 1988, AJ/59/02/83.
[xx] Schuler, Markus (Project Director). Stress Prevention Program. Maharishi Institute of Health and Ayur-Ved, Sao Paulo, Brazil, 1989, (Videotaped Documentary).
[xxi] Government of State of Piauí, Brazil, Military Police General Command 14 Dec. 1987, 037-PM-3187.
[xxii] Sandahl, F.P. The effect of the practice of TM on the degree of neuroticism as measured by the Defense Mechanism Test. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 3, edited by R.A. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn, & M. Weinless, Maharishi International University Press, Vlodrop, The Netherlands: 1978, pp. 2028-2033.
[xxiii] Brooks, J.S. & Scarano, T. Transcendental Meditation in Treatment of Post-Vietnam Adjustment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 1985, 65, 212-215.
[xxiv] Walton, K.G., & Pugh, N.D.C. Stress, steroids, and 'ojas': neuroendocrine
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[xxv] Gelderloos, P., Walton, K.G., Orme-Johnson, D.W. & Alexander, C. Effectiveness of the Transcendental Meditation program in preventing and treating substance misuse: A review. International Journal of the Addictions, 1991, 26, 293-325.
[xxvi] Alexander, C.N., Robinson, P. & Rainforth, M. Treating and Preventing Alcohol, Nicotine and Drug Abuse through Transcendental Meditation: A Review and Statistical Meta-Analysis. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 1994, 11(1+2), 13-87.
[xxvii] O'Connell, D.F. & Alexander, C.N. (Ed.) Self Recovery: Treating Addictions Using Transcendental Meditation and Maharishi Ayurveda. Hayworth Press, Inc. New York, 1994, pp. 1-524.
[xxviii] Reddy, M.K., Bai, A.J.L. & Rao, V.R. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on athletic performance: A.P. Sports Council, Lal Bahadar Stadium, and Nilouffer Hospital Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 1, edited by D.W. Orme-Johnson & J.T. Farrow. Maharishi European Research University Press, Rheinweiler, West Germany, 1974, pp. 346-358.
[xxix] Pelletier, K.R. Influence of Transcendental Meditation upon autokinetic perception. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1974, 39, 1031-1034.
[xxx] Pelletier, K.R. The effects of the Transcendental Meditation program on perceptual style: Increased field independence. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 1, edited by D.W. Orme-Johnson & J.T. Farrow. Maharishi European Research University Press, Rheinweiler, West Germany, 1977, pp. 337-345.
[xxxi] Shecter, H.E. A psychological investigation into the source of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation technique. Dissertation Abstracts International, 38(7), 3372B-3373B (Doctoral dissertation, York University, 1977).
[xxxii] Tjoa, A. Meditation, neuroticism and intelligence: A follow up. Gedrag: Tijdschrift voor Psychologie (Behavior: Journal of Psychology), 1975, 3, 167-182.
[xxxiii] Dillbeck, M.C. Meditation and flexibility of visual perception and verbal problem solving. Memory and Cognition, 1982, 10, 207-215.
[xxxiv] Miskiman, D.D. Performance on a learning task by subjects who practice the Transcendental Meditation technique. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 1, edited by D.W. Orme-Johnson & J.T. Farrow. Maharishi European Research University Press, Rheinweiler, West Germany, 1977, pp. 382-384.
[xxxv] Travis, F.T. The TM technique and creativity: A longitudinal study of Cornell University undergraduates. Journal of Creative Behavior, 1979, 13, 169-180.
[xxxvi] Shecter, Ibid.
[xxxvii] Orme-Johnson, D.W. Autonomic stability and Transcendental Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1973, 35, 341-349.
[xxxviii] Brooks & Scarano, Ibid.
[xxxix] Wallace, R.K., Mills, P.J., Orme-Johnson, D.W., Dillbeck, M.C. & Jacobe, E. Modification of the paired H reflex through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Experimental Neurology, 1983, 79, 77-83.
[xl] Cranson, R.W., Orme-Johnson, D.W., Dillbeck, M.C., Jones, C.H., Alexander, C.N. & Gackenbach, J. Transcendental Meditation and improved performance on intelligence-related measures: A longitudinal study. Personality and Individual Differences, 1991, 12, 1105-1116.
[xli] Fehr, T., Nerstheimer, U. & Törber, S. Study of personality changes resulting from the Transcendental Meditation program: Freiburger Personality Inventory. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 1, edited by D.W. Orme-Johnson & J.T. Farrow. Maharishi European Research University Press, Rheinweiler, West Germany, 1972, pp. 420-424.
[xlii] Turnbull, M.J., & Norris, H. Effects of Transcendental Meditation on self-identity indices and personality. British Journal of Psychology, 1982, 73, 57-68.
[xliii] Nidich, S.I., Seeman, W. & Dreskin, T. Influence of Transcendental Meditation: A replication. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1973, 20, 565-566.
[xliv] Orme-Johnson, D.W. & Haynes, C.T. EEG phase coherence, pure consciousness, creativity, and TM-Sidhi experiences. International Journal of Neuroscience, 1981, 13, 211-217.
[xlv] Dillbeck, M.C., Assimakis, P.D., Raimondi, D., Orme-Johnson, D.W. & Rowe, R. Longitudinal effects of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program on cognitive ability and cognitive style. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1986, 62, 731-738.
[xlvi] Nidich, S.I., Ryncarz, R.A., Abrams, A.I., Orme-Johnson, D.W. & Wallace, R.K. Kohlbergian cosmic perspective responses, EEG coherence, and the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Journal of Moral Education, 1983, 12(3), 166-173.
[xlvii] Nidich, Seeman, & Dreskin, 1973, Ibid.
[xlviii] Associated Press, Record number of conflicts threaten peace, group says, Des Moines Register, January 3, 1996, p. 5.
[xlix] Hauchler, I. & Kennedy, P.M. Global trends--the World Almanac of Development and Peace. The Continuum Publishing Company, New York, 1994, p. 179.
[l] Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. SIPRI Yearbook 1995 Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. Oxford University Press, New York, 1995.
[li] Ibid., SIPRI Yearbook 1996
[lii] Ibid., Associated Press
[liii] Ibid., SIPRI Yearbook 1997
[liv] Ibid., SIPRI Yearbook 1998
[lv] Ibid., SIPRI Yearbook 1999 and SIPRI Yearbook 2000
[lvi] Pexton, P. Secretary stresses diplomacy as first step `preventive defense' is what he calls it. Air Force Times., June 3, 1996, p. 20.
[lvii] Pexton, Ibid.
[lviii] The Maharishi Effect Creating coherence in world consciousness Promoting Positive and evolutionary trends throughout the world Results of scientific research 1974-1990. Maharishi International University Press, Fairfield, Iowa, 1990, pp. 1-90.
[lix] Assimakis, P.D. & Dillbeck, M.C. Times series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports, 1995, 76, 1171-1193.
[lx] Cavanaugh, K.L. Time series analysis of U.S. and Canadian inflation and unemployment: A test of a field-theoretic hypothesis. Proceeding of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section, 1987, pp. 799-904.
[lxi] Cavanaugh, K.L. & King, K.D. Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun's misery index: Improvements in the economic quality of life through Maharishi's Vedic Science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section, 1988, 491-496.
[lxii] Cavanaugh, K.L., King, K.D. & Ertuna, C. A multiple-input transfer function model of Okun's misery index: An empirical test of the Maharishi Effect. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section, 1989. pp. 565-570.
[lxiii] Cavanaugh, K.L., King, K.D. & Titus, B.D. In Proceedings of the Midwest Management Society, edited by R.G. Greenwood. Consciousness and the quality of economic life: Empirical research on the macroeconomic effects of the collective practice of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Midwest Management Society, Chicago, Illinois, 1989, pp.183-190.
[lxiv] Dillbeck, M.C. Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research, 1990, 22, 399-418.
[lxv] Dillbeck, M.C., Banus, C.B., Polanzi, C. & Landrith III, G.S. Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 1988, 9(4), 457-485.
[lxvi] Dillbeck, M.C., Cavanaugh, K.L., Glenn, T., Orme-Johnson, D. W. & Mittlefehldt, V. Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and changes in social indicators. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 1987, 8(1), 67-104.
[lxvii] Dillbeck, M.C., Landrith III, G.S. & Orme-Johnson, D.W. The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice, 1981, 4, 25-45.
[lxviii] Gelderloos, P., Cavanaugh, K.L. & Davies, J.L. A simultaneous transfer function analysis of U.S.-Soviet relations: A test of the Maharishi Effect. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section, 1990, pp. 297-302.
[lxix] Gelderloos, P., Frid, M.J., Goddard, P.H., Xue, X. & Löliger, S.A. Creating world peace through the collective practice of the Maharishi technology of the Unified Field: Improved U.S.-Soviet Relations. Social Science Perspectives Journal, 1988, 2(4), 80-94.
[lxx] Hagelin, J. S., Orme-Johnson, D. W., Rainforth, M., Cavanaugh, K., & Alexander, C. N. Results of the National Demonstration Project to Reduce Violent Crime and Improve Governmental Effectiveness in Washington, D.C. Social Indicators Research, 1999, 47, 153-201.
[lxxi] Hatchard, G.D., Deans, A.J., Cavanaugh, K.L. & Orme-Johnson, D.W. The Maharishi Effect: A model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. Psychology, Crime and Law, 1996, 2(3) 165-174.
[lxxii] Orme-Johnson, D.W., Alexander, C.N., Davies, J.L., Chandler, H.M. & Larimore, W.E. International peace project in the Middle East: The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 1988, 32(4), 776-812.
[lxxiii] Orme-Johnson, D.W., Gelderloos, P. & Dillbeck, M.C. The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on the U.S. quality of life (1960-1984). Social Science Perspectives Journal, 1988, 2(4), 127-146.
[lxxiv] Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. Enlightenment to every individual: Invincibility to every nation. Maharishi European Research University Press, Rheinweiler, West Germany, 1978, pp. 49-50.
[lxxv] Hagelin, J.S. Is Consciousness the Unified Field? A field theorist's perspective. Modern Science and Vedic Science, 1987, 1, pp. 28-87.
[lxxvi] Hagelin, J.S. Restructuring physics from its foundation in light of Maharishi's Vedic Science, Modern Science and Vedic Science, 1989, 3, 3-72.
[lxxvii] Hagelin, 1987, Ibid.
[lxxviii] Hagelin, 1989, Ibid.
[lxxix] Hameroff, S. & Penrose, R. Consciousness events as orchestrated space-time selections. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 1996, 3(1), 36-53.
[lxxx] Hagelin, 1987, Ibid.
[lxxxi] Hagelin, 1989, Ibid.
[lxxxii] The Maharishi Effect, 1990, Ibid.
[lxxxiii] Kleinschnitz, K.W., Leffler, D.R. & Walton, K.G. An Alternative to Military Violence and Fear-Based Deterrence: Twenty-five Years of Research on the Maharishi Effect, Modern Science and Vedic Science, In press. (An earlier version is available on-line at: http://www.subcontinent.com/sapra/military/m_1999_05_01.html).
[lxxxiv] Abou Nader, T. M., Alexander, C. N., & Davis, J. L. The Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field and reduction of armed conflict: A comparative, longitudinal study of Lebanese villages. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 4, edited by R.A. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn, & M. Weinless, Maharishi International University Press, Vlodrop, The Netherlands, 1984, pp. 2623-2633
[lxxxv] Davies, J.L. Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness: Impact assessment analysis of the Lebanon war. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(8), 2381A (Doctoral dissertation, Maharishi International University, 1988).
[lxxxvi] Davies, J.L. & Alexander, C.N. Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness: Impact assessment analyses of the Lebanon war. Paper presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 1989, Atlanta, Georgia.
[lxxxvii] Orme-Johnson, Alexander, Davies, Chandler, & Larimore, 1988, Ibid.
[lxxxviii] Orme-Johnson, Alexander, Davies, Chandler, & Larimore, 1988, Ibid.
[lxxxix] Orme-Johnson, D.W., Dillbeck, M.C., Bousquet, J.G. & Alexander, C.N. An Experimental analysis of the application of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field in major world trouble-spots: Increased harmony in international affairs. In Scientific Research on the Transcendental Meditation Program: Collected Papers Vol. 4, edited by R.A. Chalmers, G. Clements, H. Schenkluhn & M. Weinless. Maharishi Vedic University Press, Vlodrop, The Netherlands, 1989, pp. 2532-2548.
[xc] Orme-Johnson, D.W., Dillbeck, M.C., Alexander, C.N., Chandler, H.M. & Cranson, R.W. Time series impact assessment analysis of reduced international conflict and terrorism: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A., August 1989.
[xci] Alexander, C.N., Cranson, R.W., Boyer, R.W. & Orme-Johnson, D.W. Transcendental consciousness: A fourth state of consciousness beyond, sleep, dreaming, and waking. In Sleep and dreams: A sourcebook, edited by J. Gackenbach. Garland, New York, 1987, pp. 282-315.
[xcii] Orme-Johnson, D.W., Dillbeck, M.C., Wallace, R.K. & Landrith III, G.S. Intersubject EEG coherence: Is consciousness a field? International Journal of Neuroscience, 1982, 16, pp. 203-209.
[xciii] Pugh, N.D., Walton, K.G. & Cavanaugh, K.L. Can time series analysis of serotonin turnover test the theory that consciousness is a field? Society for Neuroscience Abstracts, 1988, 14, 372.
[xciv] Lofland, D. Thought Viruses, Harmony Books, New York, 1997, p. 5.
[xcv] Mills, G. A 21st Century Security Agenda: The End of "Defence" as We Know it? Strategic Analysis, 1997, XX(2), pp. 173-189.
[xcvi] G-2, Military, 1994, X(8), p. 2.
[xcvii] Chittaranjan, K. Biological Weapons: An Insidious WMD, Strategic Analysis, 1998, XXII(9), pp.1427-1443.
[xcviii] President Joachim Alberto Chissano, "The University of World Peace," (available from Maharishi Vedic University, The Netherlands, Station 24, 6063 NP Vlodrop, The Netherlands, Email: ).