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Table II. Maharishi Effect Papers and Presentations

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Citation

Experimental Design

Findings

1

Abou Nader, T. M., Alexander, C. N., & Davis, J. L. (1984). The Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field and reduction of armed conflict: A comparative, longitudinal study of Lebanese villages. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2623-2633).

Five Lebanese villages in the war region, each with population of 10,000, were studied over the period October 1978 to March 1984. In July 1982 one village, Basinka, reached the 1% TM threshold. Quarterly war data was obtained from the most objective newspaper in Lebanon. Differences between Basinka and control villages reached a significance of p<.005.

• War shelling fell (p<.005).

• War casualties fell (p<.005).

• War property damage fell though fighting in the region intensified (p<.005).

• Violence ceased in Basinka compared to control villages (p<.00001).

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Alexander, C. N., Abou Nader, T. M., Cavanaugh, K. L., Davies, J. L., Dillbeck, M. S., Kfoury, R. J., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1984). Effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on the war in Lebanon: A time series analysis of the influence of international and national coherence creating assemblies. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2687-2714).

TM-Sidhi groups assembled for two weeks on three occasions in 1984, in the US, Lebanon, and Yugoslavia, each of size predicted to impact events in Lebanon. Studied with time series intervention analysis, each assembly produced a significant impact with p<.0038, p<.000036, and p<.016 respectively, while the impact of the three together was p<.000046.

• Positivity in Lebanon rose strikingly by an average of 2.34 points (on a -4 to +4 scale) above a baseline of negativity of -.82 (p<.000046).

• War deaths fell by 55%, an average of 3.6 per day (p<.00036).

• War injuries fell by 38%.

• Currency value rose by .93 cents per week during assemblies, but declined .13 cents per week across the six-month period (p<.01).

3

Assimakis, P. D. (1989). Change in the quality of life in Canada: Intervention studies of the effect of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(5), 2203B.

The impact of the MIU TM-Sidhi group on violent death, accident fatalities, cigarette consumption, and work-days lost in strikes over the years 1972–1986 was assessed using time series impact analysis.

• Violent deaths (traffic fatalities, homicides, & suicides) fell 4.1% (p<.01).

• Fatalities due to accidents fell 5.1% (p<.005).

• Cigarette consumption fell 10.1% (p<.001).

• Work-days lost in strikes fell 18.8% (p<.001)

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Assimakis, P. D. & Dillbeck, M. C. (1995). Times series analysis of improved quality of life in Canada: Social change, collective consciousness, and the TM-Sidhi program. Psychological Reports, 76, 1171–1193.

The impact of the MIU TM-Sidhi group on Canadian quality of life was assessed from 1983 to 1985 using time series analysis of weekly data (n=156 weeks). For 78 weeks of the 156 the MIU group exceeded threshold.

• Violent death rate fell (p<.001).

• Quality of life improved (p<.0001).

• Influence of the TM-Sidhi group was not linear—an addition of 635 to the group produced a 4.1% reduction in Canadian violent death.

5

Beresford, M. S., & Clements, G. (1983). The group dynamics of consciousness and the U.K. stock market. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2616–2622).

The "All Share" Index for Great Britain was studied for 1982–1983. Time series analysis was used to assess the impact of a British TM-Sidhi group exceeding a threshold of 250 (on nine occasions.

• "All Share Index" of Great Britain rose during and following above-threshold periods (p<.01).

• "All Share Index" during above-threshold times rose at 8 times the ordinary rate.

6

Borland, C., & Landrith, G. S. III. (1976). Improved quality of city life through the Transcendental Meditation program: Decreased crime rate. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 1, pp. 639–648).

The change in crime rate in 11 US 1% cities, with population greater than 25,000, from 1972 to 1973 were compared to changes in matched control cities using FBI Uniform Crime Report data for these years.

• Crime rates fell 16% as compared to 11 matched control cities (p<.001).

• Crime rates fell 8.2% compared to 1971–1972 rates for these same cities (p<.002).

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*Burgmans, W. H. P. M., Burgt, A. T. van der, Langenkamp, F. P. Th., & Verstegen, J. G. (1983). Sociological effects of the group dynamics of consciousness: Decrease of crime and traffic accidents in Holland. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2566–2582). *Note: also Sijben, W., (1983). (dissertation) same as Burgmans, et. al. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, Vol. 4, A Taste of Utopia, University of Twente, Netherlands, Crime and traffic accidents dropped as a TM-Sidhi group in Holland exceeded threshold during 3 separate periods during the years 1971–1982.

A retrospective time series analysis study of national crime and traffic accident rates in Holland over the years 1971 to 1981 was conducted using monthly figures provided by the Holland Central Office for Statistics.

A Holland national TM-Sidhi group exceeded threshold three times in the years 1971 to 1981.

• Crime rate dropped each time the TM-Sidhi group exceeded threshold (p<.02).

• Traffic accident rate dropped each time the group exceeded threshold (p<.001).

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Cavanaugh, K. L. (1987). Time series analysis of U.S. and Canadian inflation and unemployment: A test of a field-theoretic hypothesis. Proceeding of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp. 799–904).

Monthly figures for Okun's "misery index" (sum of inflation and unemployment rates) for the US. and Canada were assessed for years 1979 to 1988 using Liu's linear transfer function method. The null hypothesis, the Maharishi Effect produced no influence, was strongly rejected.

• Misery index in US fell 39.9% as the MIU group exceeded threshold (p<.01).

• Misery index in Canada fell 29.3% as the MIU group exceeded threshold (p<.00004).

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Cavanaugh, K. L., & King, K. D. (1988). Simultaneous transfer function analysis of Okun's misery index: Improvements in the economic quality of life through Maharishi's Vedic Science and technology of consciousness. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section (pp. 491–496).

US. misery index, monetary growth and crude materials prices were studied using a linear transfer function method. The three taken together were significant at p<1.6 x 10-12 indicating a significant impact of the group on the US national economy.

For the years 1979 to 1988 as the MIU group exceeded threshold economic trends improved in the US as the MIU group exceeded threshold.

• Misery index fell 36.1% (p< 8.7x10-7).

• Growth rate of monetary base impacted (p<.00001).

• Crude materials rate of price increase fell 13% (p<.000026).

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Cavanaugh, K. L., King, K. D., & Ertuna, C. (1989). A multiple-input transfer function model of Okun's misery index: An empirical test of the Maharishi Effect. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Business and Economics Statistics Section, (pp. 565–570).

Okun's "misery index" was studied in the US from 1980 to 1988 controlling for monetary growth, rate of change of crude material prices, and rate of change of industrial production using a multiple-input transfer function method.

• Decline in the US. misery index from its peak in 1980 to 1988 was due in measure to the Maharishi Effect.

• Misery index fell by 1988 to 40% of the 1980 peak value with 31.1% of the decline attributable to the MIU group (p<3.2x10-9).

• In this model each 100 additional participants in a the TM-Sidhi group produced a further decrease of .31% in US. inflation and unemployment.

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Citation

Experimental Design

Findings

11

Cavanaugh, K. L., King, K. D., & Titus, B. D. (1989). Consciousness and the quality of economic life: Empirical research on the macroeconomic effects of the collective practice of Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the Midwest Management Society (Chicago, IL: Midwest Management Society), 183–190.

The impact of the MIU group TM-Sidhi program on the twin "miseries" of inflation and unemployment was studied using multiple input time series analysis on US economic data over the period 1979 to 1988. Strong statistical evidence for a causal role is presented.

• Increases in the size of a TM-Sidhi group led to measurably improved economic conditions.

• Inflation and unemployment together fell 4.65 points, about 40% (p<.01).

• Group TM-Sidhi practice had a more significant impact on unemployment and inflation than either of the usual explanations, monetary base growth or supply side shocks.

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Cavanaugh, K. L., Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Gelderloos, P. (1984). The effect of the Taste of Utopia Assembly on the World Index of international stock prices. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2715–2729).

The "World index" of 1,100 securities from 19 countries was studied using transfer-function analysis for the impact of a group of 7,000 TM-Sidhi experts gathered for three weeks.

• World stock market index rose at an annualized percentage rate of 85%, while in the three-week periods both preceding and following the assembly, the rate was -1% (p<.005).

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Davies, J. L. (1988). Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness: Impact assessment analysis of the Lebanon war. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(8), 2381A.

*Editor's Note: After this paper was published by SAPRA, this impact analysis study was published. Please see:

Davies, J. L. and C. N. Alexander (2005). Alleviating political violence through reducing collective tension: Impact Assessment analysis of the Lebanon war. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 17(1), 285-338

A database of articles related to events in Lebanon from many media sources compiled by the Lebanese Information and Research Center in Washington, D.C. was used to assess the impact of seven large TM assemblies held at varying distances from Lebanon on events in Lebanon over the years 1983–1985. Box-Jenkins impact analysis assigned a significance of p<.0001 to the TM intervention overall, and p<.01 for each individual assembly.

• Cooperation among antagonists rose by 66% (p<4 x 10-7).

• War intensity fell 48% (p<3 x 10-9).

• War fatalities fell 71% (p<5 x 10-7).

• War injuries fell 68% (p<5 x 10-7).

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Davies, J. L., & Alexander, C. N. (1983). The Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field and improved quality of life in the United States: A study of the First World Peace Assembly, Amherst, Massachusetts, 1979. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2549–2563).

A TM-Sidhi group of 2,500 assembled in Massachusetts for 6 weeks in 1979. Predicted in advance, and compared with trends over the same period for the previous 8 years in Massachusetts, and the US as a whole, the Maharishi Effect was studied using t-tests. Time series analysis was used for the Standard & Poor's Composite Index of stock prices.

• Traffic fatalities in US fell 6.5% (p<.0001).

• Violent crime in US fell 3.4% (p<.02).

• Air transport fatalities in US fell 20.8% (p<.05).

• US fatal accidents fell 4.0%.

• Standard & Poor's Index rose 5.0% (p<.035), and Dow Jones rose 4.8%.

• Traffic fatalities in Mass. fell 19% (p<.05).

• Violent crime in Mass. fell 10% (p<.00001).

• Mass. air traffic fatalities dropped 83% (p<.001).

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Davies, J. L., & Alexander, C. N. (1989). Alleviating political violence through enhancing coherence in collective consciousness: Impact assessment analysis of the Lebanon war. Paper presented at the 85th Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association., Atlanta, GA.

The Lebanon war was the most extreme and violent of the more than 60 conflicts world-wide in years 1983–1985. For 11% of this period, TM-Sidhi groups of size sufficient to impact the war were assembled on 7 separate occasions at varying distances from the country. The combined significance of all indicators together is p<9x10-20.

• War intensity fell 48%, fatalities fell 71%, injuries fell 68%, cooperation rose 66%.

• Effects of temperature, holidays, the possibility that courses were initiated upon hearing some good news, existing trends in Lebanon, media coverage, selected pruning of data or period, measurement artifact, bias, coincidence, seasonal cycles, and behavioral interaction between course and nation are all controlled for in the study.

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Dillbeck M. C. (1978). The Transcendental Meditation program and a compound probability model as predictor of crime rate change. Paper presented at the Midwest Sociological Society Meeting, Omaha, Nebraska.

Dillbeck creates a statistical model for crime rates and validates it on 108 US cities, and then the US as a whole. He then applies the model to Kansas City where 4 of 23 metropolitan cities reached 1% TM during the years 1972–1975. Linear regression analysis was used to predict immediate future crime trends based on past performance, and comparing the 1% cities to the remaining cities.

• Crime rate dropped 17.3% the year the cities reached 1% TM while crime in the remaining (control) cities rose by 12.8% (p<.001).

• Crime rate remained 14.5% less in following years in 1% cities, compared to an 11.6% increase in remaining (control) cities (p<.001).

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Dillbeck, M. C. (1988). (abstract) Collective consciousness and social change: Effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on U.S. violence. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, 95(1), A56.

Box-Jenkins transfer function analysis was used to assess the impact of US weekly violent death trends for 1982–1985 for homicide, suicide and traffic fatalities.

• Violent death due to homicide, suicide, traffic fatalities in US. during 1982–1985 declined sharply when the MIU Maharishi Effect group size exceeded threshold.

18

Dillbeck, M. C. (1990). Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research, 22, 399–418.

Box-Jenkins autoregressive integrated moving averages analysis and transfer function analysis were used to assess the impact of the MIU TM-Sidhi group on US weekly violent fatalities due to traffic accident, homicide and suicide across the period 1979–1985.

• Violent death decreased 5.5% due to the influence of the TM-Sidhi group. Thus, 63% of the total decrease in violent death is attributable to group TM-Sidhi practice (p<.0001).

• In the model each additional participant in the national TM-Sidhi group reduced annual violent deaths by 3.8 lives.

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Dillbeck, M. C., Banus, C. B., Polanzi, C., & Landrith III, G. S. (1988). Test of a field model of consciousness and social change: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and decreased urban crime. The Journal of Mind and Behavior, 9(4), 457–485.

Study 1: 160 randomly chosen US cities, in 4 different size categories, comprising 26% of US metropolitan population were studied for the impact of level of TM participation during years 1967–1978 on FBI crime statistics using cross-lagged panel analysis to assess causality. By 1976 TM participation in these cities had reached .45%.

Study 2: 80 randomly chosen standard metropolitan areas, comprising 47% of US metropolitan population were studied using multiple regression analysis. By 1976 TM participation in these metropolitan areas had reached .33%.

Study 3: Time series analysis is used to assess the impact of a TM-Sidhi group on D.C. weekly violent crime totals over the period October 1981 to October 1983.

• Causal role of TM participation in decrease of crime rate trends is demonstrated with high order of confidence in a study of 160 randomly chosen US cities (p<.01 for half the years, p<.05 for remaining years).

• Causal role of TM participation in crime rate trends is demonstrated with high order of confidence in a study of 80 randomly chosen large metropolitan areas (p<.01 for each year 1972 on).

• Violent crime drops .295 events per week for each TM-Sidhi participant, or a total reduction of 2,929 violent crimes across the two years for a TM-Sidhi group numbering an average of 321 (p<.001).

• The analysis suggests that 76.6% of the decrease in violent crime in D.C. in years 1981–1983 was attributable to impact of the TM-Sidhi group.

20

Dillbeck, M. C., Cavanaugh, K. L., & Berg, W. P. (1983). The effect of the group dynamics of consciousness on society: Reduced crime in the union territory of Delhi, India. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2583–2588).

3,000 TM-Sidhi experts assembled in New Delhi, India November 1980. Group size diminished in following months through March 1981 when the threshold number was no longer exceeded. Time series analysis was used to study the intervention using daily crime data.

• Crime decreased 11% compared to previous trends (p<.0001).

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Citation

Experimental Design

Findings

21

Dillbeck, M. C., Cavanaugh, K. L., Glenn, T., Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Mittlefehldt, V. (1987). Consciousness as a field: The Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program and changes in social indicators. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 8(1), 67–104.

Time series analysis is used to assess the impact on crime trends of five separate Maharishi Effect interventions around the world. In New Delhi, crime rates dropped. In Puerto Rico, the impact of a group numbering 185 was significant. In the Philippines crime decreased and quality of life rose. In Rhode Island quality of life rose during the study, and continued to improve when many residents began the practice of TM.

• Crime fell 11% in Delhi, India (p<.0001).;

• Crime fell significantly in Puerto Rico as a group was established, and rose after its departure (p<.025).

• Crime fell 12% in the Philippines (p<.005).

• Quality of life rose in the Philippines (p<.025).

• Quality of life rose in Rhode Island (p<.01).

• Quality of life remained higher following the intervention in Rhode Island (p<.01).

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Dillbeck, M. C., Foss, A. P. O. Zimmermann, W. J. (1993). Maharishi's Global Society Campaign: Improved quality of life in Rhode Island through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2521–2531).

300 TM-Sidhi experts went to Rhode Island from June 12 to September 12, 1978. Using Delaware, a similar state, as a control, time series analysis on monthly data from 1974 to 1980 for crime rate, motor vehicle fatality rate, motor vehicle accident rate, death rate, beer consumption, cigarette consumption, unemployment rate, and pollution, was used to assess the impact of the Maharishi Effect.

• Quality of life—as assessed by an index composed of crime rate, vehicular fatality rate, vehicular accident rate, death rate, beer consumption, cigarette consumption, unemployment and pollution—improved significantly both during (p<.01) and following (p<.005) the intervention.

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Dillbeck, M. C., Landrith III, G. S., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1981). The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change in a sample of forty-eight cities. Journal of Crime and Justice, 4, 25–45.

The authors compared all 24 US cities with 1% TM in 1972 to 24 control cities matched for population, college population, and geographical region. Crime rates for 1967 to 1971 served as control period, and 1972 to 1977 as experimental period. 10 demographic factors were included in a bivariate analysis of covariance of crime rate slope and immediate 1973 crime rate decrease.

• Crime rate immediately dropped 14% in Maharishi Effect cities as compared to control cities (p<.01).

• Crime trends in 1% cities remained an average of 3.8% below predicted levels for the following five years.

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Dillbeck, M. S., Landrith III, G. S., Polanzi, C., & Baker, S. R. (1982). The Transcendental Meditation program and crime rate change: A causal analysis. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2515–2520).

Cross-lagged panel correlation was used to assess causality between TM participation and crime rate decreases in two studies, one using 160 randomly chosen cities, the second using 80 randomly chosen metropolitan areas which include over 47% of the total US metropolitan population. The studies controlled for 10 confounding variables and used linear regression to predict crime rates from baseline years 1964–1971. Evidence for causality in the 160 cities on a year-to-year basis exceeded p<.05 on 3 and p<.01 on 3 of the 7 years total. In 80 metropolitan areas, p<.01 for all 7 years.

• Crime trends nationwide in the US fell an average of 18% below conservatively predicted levels attributable to TM participation during years 1972–1978.

• Crime reductions due to TM participation were established on a high level of statistical significance.

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Dillbeck, M. C., Larimore, W. E., & Wallace, R. K. (1984). A time series analysis of the effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field: Reduction of traffic fatalities in the United States. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2589–2599).

The MIU TM-Sidhi group exceeded the US threshold of 1,520 17 times in 1982. Interrupted time series analysis was used to assess the group impact on US traffic accidents. At level 1,520 participants, a significance of p<.014 was obtained. At higher level 1,600 (reached 10 times) p<.005 was obtained.

• Traffic fatalities in the US nationwide fell 2.8 per day when the MIU TM-Sidhi group exceeded threshold (p<.014).

• Traffic fatalities in the US fell 7.5 per day for a day with an addition of 100 to the 1,520 group size, lagged slightly.

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Dillbeck, M. C., Mittlefehldt, V., Lukenbach, A. P., Childress, D., Royer, A., Westsmith, L., & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1984). A time series analysis of the relationship between the group practice of Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program in crime change in Puerto Rico. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2678–2686).

A TM-Sidhi group reached the predicted threshold of 185 for Puerto Rico during April, May, and June 1984. Using "Category 1" (major crimes) crime data from 1969 to 1984, time series intervention analysis was used to assess the impact of the group.

• Crime in Puerto Rico fell an average of 649 crimes per month below predicted values when the TM-Sidhi group threshold was exceeded (p<.025).

• Crime stayed below predicted levels for 4 months following consistent with the predicted effect from the large US assembly in 1984 (p<.025).

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Dillbeck, M.C., & Rainforth, M.V. (1996). Impact assessment analysis of behavioral quality of life indices: Effects of group practice of the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section, (pp. 38–43).

Study 1: A behavioral index was computed based on monthly data from 1970 to 1986 on U.S. motor vehicle fatalities, suicides, homicides, accidental death, notifiable diseases, alcohol consumption and cigarettes taxed and analyzed as a dependent variable, with TM-Sidhi program participation (avg. daily number of participants) as the independent variable using Liu and Hanssens linear transfer function.

Study 2: Data collection and analyses in Study 1 were replicated for Canada.

• A significant effect, 36.1%, of the threshold value of the independent variable (the square root of 1% of U.S. population) on behavioral quality of life in the U.S. was obtained.

• A similar statistically significant effect, 31.6%, was obtained in the replication for Canada.

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Gelderloos, P., Cavanaugh, K. L., & Davies, J. L. (1990). The dynamics of U.S.-Soviet relations, 1979–1986: Effects of reducing social stress through the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. An abridged version of this paper, entitled "A simultaneous transfer function analysis of U.S.-Soviet relations: A test of the Maharishi Effect" published in the Proceedings of the American Statistical Association, Social Statistics Section, 1990, pp. 297–302.

Simultaneous transfer function modeling was used to study US-Soviet relations over the years 1979–1986. Content analysis of articles from the Zurich project was analyzed using Azar's coding rules. Analysis yielded p<.00001 for the positive effect of the TM and TM-Sidhi programs on US-Soviet relations. Both monthly and weekly data were assessed, with comparable result.

• US actions towards the USSR improved after the MIU TM-Sidhi group exceeded threshold, lagged 3 months.

• US actions towards the USSR improved with a 2-month lag as the group reached a size of 1,700.

• USSR actions toward the US improved 2- to 4-months after the TM-Sidhi group reached 1,700.

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Gelderloos, P., Frid, M. J., Goddard, P. H., Xue, X., & Löliger, S. A. (1988). Creating world peace through the collective practice of the Maharishi technology of the Unified Field: Improved U.S.-Soviet Relations. Social Science Perspectives Journal, 2(4), 80–94.

Time-series assessment of the impact of the MIU TM-Sidhi group on the 347 public comments by President Reagan related to the Soviet Union over the period April 1985 to September 1987. Neutral raters blind to the hypothesis rated content of each item. The joint significant of all impacts together was p<.007.

• Public statements by the US president about the USSR became increasingly positive by an average of 4 points on a 14-point scale (p<.024 at lag 0 weeks, p<.002 at lag 3 weeks).

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Gelderloos, P., Frid, M. J., & Xue, X. (1989). Improved U.S.-Soviet relations as a function of the number of participants in the collective practice of the TM-Sidhi program, Abstract insert in Journal of the Iowa Academy of Science, 96(1), A33.

All 478 public statements by the US president about the USSR over the years 1984–1987 were rated on a war-peace scale. Time series analysis of quartile distributions of the number in the MIU TM-Sidhi groups had a significant relationship with the positivity of the president's utterances. These two results together were highly significant at lags 0 and 3 with p<.0007.

• Public statements of the US. President about the USSR and its General Secretary became more positive as the Maharishi Effect group size increased (p<.0019 for lags 3, 5, and 8 weeks together).

• More statements were made about the USSR when numbers were above the second quartile at lag 2 (p<.0087).

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Experimental Design

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Goodman, R.S. (1997). The Maharishi Effect and Government: Effects of a national demonstration project and a permanent group of Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program practitioners on success, public approval, and coherence in the Clinton, Reagan, and Bush Presidencies. (Doctoral dissertation, Maharishi University of Management, 1997). (Also in Goodman, R.S., Orme-Johnson, D.W., Rainforth, M.V., Goodman, D.H. (in press). Transforming political institutions through individual and collective consciousness: The Maharishi Effect and government. Proceeding of the 1997 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, D.C.)

Study 1: A Maharishi Effect intervention group called the National Demonstration Project (NDP) was created in the US capital. Predictions were lodged in advance with government leaders and newspapers. The research protocol was approved by an independent Project Review Board comprised of criminologists, sociologists, and political scientists from six independent universities as well as civic leaders and representatives from the police department. The first study used time series structural break analysis.

Study 2: ARIMA times series transfer function analyses was used to measure the effects of large groups practicing the TM and TM-Sidhi programs (the independent variable) on the Clinton, Reagan, and Bush administrations.

Study 1: Variables showed a significantly changed trend in the predicted direction toward greater positivity after NDP began, p values are one-tailed:

• Clinton's approval rating showed a net change increase (p=5.29 x 10-8).

• Media positivity toward Clinton showed a net change increase (p=.01).

• Emergency psychiatric calls decreased (p=.009).

• Hospital trauma cases decreased (p=.02).

• Complaints against the police decreased (p=.01).

• Accidental deaths decreased (p=.05).

• Quality of life index improved (p=3.22 x 10-5).

Study 2: All p values are one-tailed.

• Bi-weekly data showed statistically significant increase of approval rating and media positivity for Clinton (from p=.03 to p=.0005). Bush and Reagan (Reagan media positivity not available) monthly data showed similar results (p=.035 to p=4.09 x 10-18).

• Analysis of U.S. interactions with other countries (net cooperation, WEIS data set) during Reagan administration showed significant influence of the TM-Sidhi group (p=4.82 x 10-12).

• Increases in TM-Sidhi group associated with increases in net cooperation of the U.S. with other countries (p<.01 for significant lags of independent variables).

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Gowing, S. G. (1986). (BSW thesis) What does the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field mean for social work? A study in Australia., Unpublished BSW honors thesis. University of Sidney, Australia.

Time series analysis was used to assess the impact of two above-threshold Maharishi Effect events on Australian trends in January 1983 (n=400) and on New South Wales trends for April 1984 (n=192).

• Traffic fatalities fell 13.9%, a reduction of 34 fatalities (p<.0005).

• Unemployment fell 8.3%, meaning work was found for 39,230 people (p<.0005).

• Stock value increased 1% per day of the impact period p<.025).

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Hagelin, J. S., Orme-Johnson, D. W., Rainforth, M., Cavanaugh, K., & Alexander, C. N. (1999). Results of the National Demonstration Project to Reduce Violent Crime and Improve Governmental Effectiveness in Washington, D.C. Social Indicators Research, 47, 153-201.

A Maharishi Effect intervention was created and studied in the US capital. Predictions were lodged in advance with government leaders and newspapers. The research protocol approved by an independent Project Review Board set the experimental period from June 7 to July 30, 1993. Time series analysis was employed in the study.

• Crime fell 23% below the predicted level when the TM-Sidhi group reached its maximum (p<2 x 10-9 for weekly data).

• Temperature, weekend effects, or previous trends in the data failed to account for changes.

• Public approval of the US president suddenly changed from a negative trend to a positive trend, as predicted (p<.00002).

34

Hatchard, G. (1977). Influence of the Transcendental Meditation program on crime rate in suburban Cleveland. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 2, pp. 1199–1204).

40 suburban areas of Cleveland were studied for a relationship between crime and TM participation over the years 1972 through 1976. Crime decreases from 1973 to 1974, from 1974 to 1975, and 1975 to 1976, the years for which some areas exceeded 0.5% participation in the TM program, were significant at p<.001, p<.01, and p<.001 respectively.

• 4 of the 40 Cleveland suburban areas reaching 1% TM in 1974 .

• Crime dropped 8.1% in 1974 compared to 1973 in 1% suburbs, while increasing an average of 4.0% in the remaining suburbs (p<.001).

• Crime in 1% neighborhoods dropped an additional .7% from 1974 to 1975 while increasing an average of 5.7% in the remaining suburbs (p<.01).

35

Hatchard, G. D., Deans, A. J., Cavanaugh, K. L. , & Orme-Johnson, D. W. (1996). The Maharishi Effect: A model for social improvement. Time series analysis of a phase transition to reduced crime in Merseyside metropolitan area. Psychology, Crime and Law, 2(3) 165–174.

Time series analysis of monthly crime data and coherence group size from 1978 to 1991 shows a phase transition occurred during March 1988 when the group size first exceeded threshold (p<.00006)

• Crime rate fell by 16% in Merseyside, but increased by 20% in the rest of England and Wales by 20%

• Merseyside moved from third highest crime rate of all metropolitan areas, to second lowest crime rate.

• 170,000 fewer crimes were reported in Merseyside than expected over 3-1/2 year period.

• Savings to government are projected at $850 million.

36

Landrith III, G. S., & Dillbeck, M. C. (1983). The growth of coherence in society through the Maharishi effect: Reduced rates of suicides and auto accidents. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, p. 2479–2486).

All US 1% cities with populations greater than 10,000 (n=21) were matched with control cities for geography, population, and college population but less than .07% practicing TM. The study controlled for eight demographic variables and compared rates for 1972 to 1977 to those of control cities and to rates for 1967 to 1971 for the same city. Multivariate t-test analysis of the data yielded a statistical significance of p<.005.

• Suicide rates fell 3.2% in 1% cities but rose 2.7% in control cities (p<.001).

• Traffic accidents fell 1.8% in 1% cities, but rose 5.2% in the controls (p<.001).

37

Lanford, A. G. (1984a). Reduction in homicide in Washington, D.C. through the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field, 1980–1983: A time series analysis. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2600–2608).

Time series analysis of weekly homicide data for the period August 1980 to November 1983 (n=173) in Washington, D.C. was investigated for a threshold of 400 TM-Sidhi experts, obtained 38 out of 76 weeks.

• Homicides fell by 0.9 per week, a 22% decrease, when threshold was exceeded (p<.02).

38

Lanford, A. G. (1984b). The effect of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on stock prices of Washington, D.C. area based corporations, 1980–1983: A time series analysis. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2609–2615).

Time series analysis of weekly stock price data for Washington, D.C. corporations 1980–1983 (n=173) in Washington, D.C. was investigated for a threshold of 400 TM-Sidhi experts locally, obtained 38 out of 76 weeks, or for the MIU TM-Sidhi group.

• Stock prices for Washington D.C. corporations rose an average of $2.46 during weeks in which either the local TM-Sidhi group exceeded threshold, or the MIU group exceeded threshold (p<.01, and p<.0005, respectively).

39

Leffler, D.L. (1997). A Vedic approach to military defense: Reducing stress through the field effects of consciousness. (Doctoral Dissertation, The Union Institute, 1997).

Study assessed impact of the presence and then the absence of a TM-Sidhi group of 100 to 150 in Cleveland metropolitan area on ability of police personnel to perceive and report stress.

• Scores on the Toronto Alexithymia Scale decreased during the intervention and then rose following the intervention (p<.007).

40

Lubeck, M.R. (1997). (Title not yet available) (Doctoral dissertation, Maharishi University of Management, 1997).

The impact of the TM-Sidhi group at M.U.M. and practitioners of the TM program throughout the U.S. was assessed using time series analysis and structural break analysis. The study measured the relationship between traffic fatalities, retail sales, and vehicle miles traveled when the predicted threshold was surpassed for the TM-Sidhi program group at M.U.M. alone, and for practitioners of the TM program throughout the US.

• Preliminary results of the structural analysis indicated that when the number of practitioners reached predicted thresholds there was a significant decrease in traffic fatalities, controlling for the vehicle miles traveled. Also, the relationship between retail sales and vehicle miles significantly changed when the size of the TM-Sidhi group exceeded threshold: A much lower increase in traffic fatalities occurred with an increase in the economy. Overall, there was a 5% average decrease when all of the thresholds were met (p<.001)

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Citation

Experimental Design

Findings

41

Orme-Johnson, D. W., Alexander, C. N., Davies, J. L., Chandler, H. M., & Larimore, W. E. (1988). International peace project in the Middle East: The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 32(4), 776–812.

An Israel Maharishi Effect group was established summer 1983. The number of participants varied on a daily basis from a low of 65 to a high of 241. Time series analysis and transfer function analysis are simultaneously used, and results compared, on six variables, and three composite quality of life indicators.

• War intensity dropped 45% (p<.0045)

• War deaths dropped 76% (p<.02) from a mean of 40 deaths per day to 9.7 per day.

• Crime in Israel dropped 12% (p<.0016) from a mean of 608 per day to 535 per day.

• Crime in Jerusalem dropped 8.8% (p<.023) from a mean of 46.7 per day to 42.6 per day.

• Fires dropped 30% (p<.045) from a mean of 8 per day to 5.6 per day.

• Auto accident fatalities fell 34% (p<.024) from a mean of 3.9 per day to 2.5 per day.

• Taken together, quality of life improved by 1.3 standard deviation units in Israel (p<.0001), by .75 in Lebanon (p<.02) and by .94 in Jerusalem (p<.003)

42

Orme-Johnson, D. W., Cavanaugh, K. L., Alexander, C. N., Gelderloos, P., Dillbeck, M. C., Lanford, A. G., & Abou Nader, T. M. (1987). The influence of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on world events and global social indicators: The effects of the Taste of Utopia Assembly. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2730–2762).

An experiment to assess the influence of the Maharishi Effect on world trends was conducted starting December 1983 for three weeks. A group of over 7,000 TM-Sidhi experts assembled at MIU in Iowa. Statistical significance was obtained in every category of the predicted results using, for heads of state-content analysis; for positive-negative event-content analysis; for Lebanon war events-content analysis; increase in stock prices-regression analysis; for traffic fatalities world-wide-chi square; for air traffic fatalities-contingency table analysis; for patent applications-chi square; for infectious disease rate-a randomization test; for crime rate-time series analysis.

• Heads of state successfully reversed prior negative trends in their nations (p<.004).

• Positive events increased and negative events decreased during the assembly (p<.002).

• In Lebanon great progress towards peaceful resolution of war was made during experiment, but was lost after (p<.006).

• World stock index rose .77 points per day during assembly, which was declining .14 points per day previous to and following the assembly (p<.001).

• Traffic fatalities were 18 percent lower than predicted (p<.0001).

• Air traffic fatalities world-wide were the fewest ever reported (p<.0001).

• Patent applications rose simultaneously in nations world-wide by 15.2% (p<.0001).

• Infectious disease rates fell by 33% in reporting nations US and Australia (p<.0001).

• Crime rates fell in national capitals (p<.000001).

43

Orme-Johnson, D. W., Dillbeck, M. C., Alexander, C. N., Chandler, H. M., & Cranson, R. W. (1989). (abstract) same as Orme-Johnson, et. al. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers Vol. 5, Orme-Johnson, D. W., Dillbeck, M. C., Alexander, C. N., Chandler, H. M., and Cranson, R. W. Time series impact assessment analysis of reduced international conflict and terrorism: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi program. Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta, GA, U.S.A., August 1989.*Editor's Note: After this paper was written, this impact analysis study was published. See:

ORME-JOHNSON, D. W., DILLBECK, M. C., and ALEXANDER, C. N.: 2003, ‘Preventing terrorism and international conflict: Effects of large assemblies of participants in the Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi programs’. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36, pp. 283-302.

Three large assemblies approaching the Maharishi Effect threshold for the world (n=7,000) were held during the years 1983–1985. Time series analysis was used in conjunction with the content analysis of world-wide news events reported in the New York Times and London Times. The Rand Corporation data bank was used to study international conflict (p<.025, p<.005 and p<.01 for each of the three assemblies) and terrorism (p<.025). Time series analysis of the World index of stock price yielded p<.025.

• International conflict decreased 32% (p<.025).

• Terrorist casualties decreased 72% (p<.025).

• Capitol International World Stock Index increased (p<.025).

• The Maharishi Effect had a rapid onset.

• The Maharishi Effect influenced trends from distances of thousands of miles.

• Violence was reduced in other nations without intrusion by other governments.

44

Orme-Johnson, D. W., Dillbeck, M. C., Bousquet, J. G., & Alexander, C. N. (1983). An experimental analysis of the application of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified field in major world trouble-spots: Increased harmony in international affairs. Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, p. 2532–2548).

In 1978 a total of 1,400 TM-Sidhi experts went to 5 world trouble spots—Lebanon, Iran, Rhodesia, Kampuchea, and Nicaragua—for 10 weeks to create the Maharishi Effect. 14,567 events for 1978 were recorded in the Conflict and Peace Data Bank, the world's largest such resource. Contingency table analysis of COPDAB data against a 10-week control period, against a 1-year baseline, and against a 10-year baseline all showed improvement. Time series analysis showed the project had a strong and statistically significant effect world-wide. Investigators report trouble-spot areas experienced noticeable decreases in violence and disorder upon arrival of the group, and, in general, a return to previous trends upon their departure.

Compared to a ten-week baseline, world-wide trends improved

• Hostile acts, as a proportion, decreased nationally 16.7% (p<.002).

• Verbal hostilities, as a proportion, increased nationally by 3.5% (p<.01).

• Cooperative events, as a proportion, rose nationally by 13.2% (p<.007).

• The number of cooperative events increased 115%.

Compared to a one-year baseline, world-wide trends also improved (p<.001). As proportions:

• Hostile acts decreased 8.4%.

• Verbal hostilities decreased 5.7%.

• Cooperative events increased 14.1%.

Compared to a ten-year baseline, world-wide trends again improved (p<.001). As proportions:

• Hostile acts decreased 2.8%.

• Verbal hostilities decreased 1.0%.

• Cooperative events increased 3.8%.

45

Orme-Johnson, D. W., & Gelderloos, P. (1984). The long-term effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on the quality of life in the United States (1960–1983). Scientific Research on Maharishi's Transcendental Meditation and TM-Sidhi Program: Collected Papers, (Vol. 4, pp. 2634–2652).

US quality of life was studied over the years 1960–1983 using a comprehensive index comprised of 12 annual measures related to crime, health, economics, education, safety, and marital happiness in society. The percentage of US TM participation together with the number in the MIU TM-Sidhi group comprised the Maharishi Effect variable. Evidence the Maharishi Effect caused improved quality of life came from lagged cross-correlations predicting quality of life from TM-participation showing this indicator accounted for 44% of the variance p<.0001. Regression analysis yielded a similar result with p<.0001 as well.

A reversal of long-term decline in US. quality of life occurred as large no. of US population began TM and accelerated sharply when the square root of 1% threshold exceeded.

• Crime rate fell for the first time in 20 yrs. by .78%, 4.3%, and 7.6% in 1981 to 1983, the first three years of the MIU TM-Sidhi group.

• Civil cases reaching trial dropped 11.5% in 1982–83.

• Infectious diseases declined 7% in 1983.

• Infant mortality reached all-time low in 1983.

• Suicides have fallen from 1977 peak.

• Hospital admissions began a decline in 1981.

• Cigarette consumption showed largest decline, 6.2% in 1983.

• Alcohol consumption began a steep decline from 1981 onwards.

• Drug abuse reversed trends starting 1982.

• GNP per capita rose 2.3% in 1983 marking the end of the recession.

• Unemployment declined sharply starting 1983.

• Poverty increases leveled off in 1982.

• Patent applications reached highest level ever in 1982.

• Degrees conferred per capita begin to rise in 1982

• Divorce rates reversed a steady increase beginning in 1982.

• Traffic fatality rate fell dramatically starting 1981.

• Fatalities due to fire started a continuing decline in 1975, while number of fires remained constant.

46

Orme-Johnson, D. W., Gelderloos, P., & Dillbeck, M. C. (1988). The effects of the Maharishi Technology of the Unified Field on the U.S. quality of life (1960–1984). Social Science Perspectives Journal, 2(4), 127–146.

US quality of life was studied over the years 1960–1984 using an index composed of 11 annual measures of crime, health, economics, creativity, marital stability, and safety. With the Maharishi Effect as the independent variable and quality of life as dependent regression analysis gives an impact with p<.0001. Checking for the impact of the TM-Sidhi group, regression analysis for years following 1976 was significant at p<.002. Cross correlation analysis was used to assess causality with result p<.05 indicating TM meditator rate could successfully predict quality of life changes, but not vice-versa. The years 1982–1984 studied separately as the Maharishi Effect index exceeded one due to growth of the MIU TM-Sidhi group. The Maharishi Effect group could account for 83.2% of the variance in the quality of life indicator with p<.0002. Testing for the effect of the group alone over the years 1982–84 gave a significance of p<.0001

• US quality of life, on a downward slide since 1960, reversed its trend in 1976 when the percentage of the US population practicing TM increased significantly.

• US quality of life continued to rise at a rate predicted by the rate of individual practice of TM together with the size of the MIU TM-Sidhi group.

• US quality of life reversed trends from decline to increase when .4% of the US population had learned TM in 1976.

• Acceleration in quality of life change without precedent was found from 1982 to 1984 as the Maharishi Effect index exceeded 1% threshold.

• Alternative explanations such as availability of new technology, change of population distribution, etc., are ruled out because they cannot predict the changes in quality of life.

• All areas of life are found to improve simultaneously as a function of the increase of the Maharishi Effect influence, and the quality of rise was unique after the 1% threshold was crossed.

47

Reeks, D. (1990). Improved Quality of Life in Iowa through the Maharishi Effect. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(12), 6155B.

Time series transfer function analysis related the size of the MIU Maharishi Effect group to monthly rates of unemployment, traffic accidents, crime and a quality of life index composed of these three over the years 1979–86 as the group varied in size.

• Unemployment fell as group size increased (p<.004).

• Crime fell as group size increased (p<.0001).

• Traffic fatalities fell as group size increased (p<.0001).

• Quality of life improved (p<.006).

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